Helping you live a better life on dialysis

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Glossary

Abdomen

The part of the body containing the internal organs. Lies between the pelvis and the chest cavity.

Access

A means to get into the body. Accesses to the bloodstream for hemodialysis are fistulas, grafts, etc. Access to the peritoneal cavity for peritoneal dialysis is a catheter.

Acute Renal Failure

Sudden and severe decrease in kidney function that is short term.

Acute(AIP)

Rapidly developing; severe; short duration.

Ambulatory

Able to walk; movable.

Anemia

A condition in which there is a reduction of red blood cells.

Antibiotic

Medication used to kill bacteria and fight infection.

Anticoagulant

Medication that delays or stops the clotting of blood such as Coumadin® or heparin.

Antihypertensive

Medication that lowers blood pressure.

Antiseptic

Chemical that stops growth and reproduction of bacteria and viruses, but doesn’t necessarily destroy them as a disinfectant would.

Arterial Line

A tube that carries blood away from the body into the artificial kidney.

Arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries.

Artery

A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart to other parts of the body.

Artificial Kidney

A filtering device used with an artificial kidney machine to remove excess fluid and waste products from the body. Also known as “dialyzer” and “hemodialyzer.”

Bacteria

Single cell organisms, capable of rapid reproduction. They are present everywhere; some are harmless, others are known to produce infectious diseases.

Bath

see “dialysate.”

Blood Chemistries

Measurement of certain chemicals in the blood

Blood Flow Rate

In dialysis, the rate at which the patient’s blood is pumped through the artificial kidney.

Blood Pressure

Pressure blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. This is expressed in two numbers, such as 120/80. The systolic (top) number is the pressure when the heart is contracting and the diastolic (bottom) number is the pressure when the heart is at rest.

Blood Pump

A pump that moves blood from the patient’s access through the blood tubing and artificial kidney and back to the patient without damage to the blood cells.

Bruit

Sound produced by the blood flowing through a graft, fistula or shunt.

BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)

Combination of waste products (nitrogen and urea) in the blood normally excreted by the kidneys.

Cadaver Donor

Someone who has died and whose kidneys have been donated for transplantation.

Calcium

Element found in the body. Important to bone growth and formation, blood clotting, nerve and muscle functioning and the activation of certain enzymes.

Carbohydrate

Category of food that is easily used by the body for energy.

Cardiac

Anything to do with the heart.

Catheter

A flexible, hollow tube through which fluids enter or leave the body. A catheter is implanted in the abdomen for peritoneal dialysis.

Chronic

Of long duration or recurring often.

Chronic Renal (kidney) Failure

Damage to the kidneys that cannot be reversed, usually progressive in nature.

Clearance

Rate that waste products in the blood are removed through dialysis expressed in milliliters/minute.

Coagulation

The process of forming a blood clot.

Concentration

Strength of a solution.

Congestive Heart Failure

A condition in which the body is fluid overloaded, causing the heart to pump less effectively. Congestive heart failure may result in excess fluid in the lungs.

Contaminate

Allowing microorganisms to contact a sterile area, making it unsterile and creating potential for infection.

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)

A form of dialysis in which dialysate drains into and out of the peritoneal cavity by gravity several times a day.

Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)

A form of dialysis that uses a cycling machine to infuse and drain dialysate from the peritoneal cavity several times during the night while the patient sleeps.

Convulsion

Involuntary muscle contractions and relaxation.

Creatinine

One of the many waste products in the blood produced by normal tissue breakdown and removed by the kidneys, or by dialysis in patients with renal failure.

Cross-matching

Testing of blood and tissues to check compatibility of donor kidney and patient for kidney transplantation.

Culture

A sample of organisms taken from a site to identify the specific organism causing infection.

Dialysate

Solution containing water and chemicals (electrolytes) that passes through the artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wastes from the blood. Also called “bath.”

Dialysate Flow Rate

Rate at which dialysate flows through the dialyzer.

Dialysis

Cleansing the body of unwanted toxins, waste products and excess fluid by filtering them from the blood through a semipermeable membrane.

Dialysis Treatment Plan

Regimen based on the individual needs of the chronic renal failure patient to reestablish physical balance.

Dialyzer

See “artificial kidney.”

Diffusion

Passage of particles from a solution of high concentration to a solution of low concentration resulting in an even distribution of particles.

Disinfectant

An agent which will kill most microorganisms (bacteria, viruses) it contacts.

Dry Weight

The weight of a dialysis patient when excess fluid has been removed. Also known as “ideal weight.”

Dwell Time

Length of time dialysis solution stays in the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis.

Edema

Swelling or puffiness due to buildup of excess fluid in the tissues most noticeable in ankles, hands and face. Occurs in dialysis patients as a result of excess fluid intake or decreased ultrafiltration.

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

Stage of kidney damage that requires dialysis or kidney transplantation to maintain life. Another term for permanent kidney failure.

Exchange

The process of changing used dialysate for fresh solution in peritoneal dialysis.

Exit Site

The area where the needles enter or exit through the access. Also, where a peritoneal dialysis catheter or subclavian catheter exits the skin.

Fistula

The surgical joining of an artery and a vein so that the vein enlarges due to the flow of arterial blood. A fistula is a type of access, also known as an “arteriovenous fistula.”

Fluid Overload

Point at which extra fluid in the body causes edema, difficulty in breathing, or extra strain on the heart.

Glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the kidney’s filters.

Graft

In dialysis, surgical placement of a material between an artery and vein to create a circulatory access for hemodialysis. Graft also refers to a transplanted kidney.

Hematocrit

The ratio of red blood cells to whole blood.

Hemodialysis

Removal of excess fluids and waste products by passage of blood through an artificial kidney.

Hemodialyzer

See “artificial kidney.”

Hemoglobin

Red, protein portion of the red blood cell which carries oxygen from lungs to body tissues.

Heparin

A “blood thinner” or anticoagulant given in hemodialysis to slow clotting time so that blood will not clot in the lines or dialyzer.

Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver caused by virus, bacteria, toxic agents or medication.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

Substance that indicates infection with hepatitis B. Testing for this antigen is performed frequently on clinic staff and patients.

Hypertension

High blood pressure.

Hypotension

Low blood pressure.

Immunosuppressive Drug

Type of medication that suppresses the body’s immune response. Given to transplant recipients to help prevent rejection of the transplanted kidney.

Infection

Invasion of the body by disease-producing organisms and the reaction of the tissues to their presence.

Inflammation

Localized heat, redness, swelling and pain; usually as a result of infection or irritation.

Intravenous

Within a vein.

Kidneys

Two bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spinal column. Kidneys maintain the body’s chemical balance by excreting waste products and excess fluid in the form of urine.

Kilogram

1,000 grams; 1 kilogram equals 2.2 pounds.

Kt/V

Clearance x time / volume. Measure that indicates how well waste products have been removed by dialysis treatment.

Liter

The basic unit of volume measurement in metric system, approximately equal to a quart.

Membrane

Thin layer of tissue or material, usually an outer layer or lining of organs or group of organs.

Metabolism

Physical and chemical changes occurring within the body in order to produce and use energy.

Minerals

Inorganic substances necessary to normal body function, but toxic in high concentrations.

Monitor

(noun) Electronic device used to check, remind or warn. (verb) Watching patients during their treatments, or checking the adequacy of treatments over time.

Nausea

Upset stomach.

Nephrectomy

Surgical removal of the kidney.

Nephrologist

Doctor specializing in kidney disorders.

Nephron

Unit of the kidney which maintains the body’s chemical balance. There are approximately one million nephrons in each kidney.

Neuropathy

Any disease of the nerves.

Osmosis

Movement of fluid through a semipermeable membrane to achieve equal concentration on both sides of the membrane.

Palpitation

Irregular beating of the heart.

Parathyroid Glands

Small glands located in the neck that produce a hormone which regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

Parathyroidectomy

Surgical removal of the parathyroid glands. Can be partial or complete.

PD PlusTM

A combination of CCPD and CAPD mostly used by PD patients who need more efficient dialysis.

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium, the sac-like structure surrounding the heart.

Peritoneal Cavity

Space surrounding the abdominal organs located under the abdominal muscles.

Peritoneal Dialysis

A form of dialysis in which the lining of the abdomen, the peritoneal membrane, acts as a natural filter.

Peritoneum (or peritoneal membrane)

Smooth, semipermeable membrane that covers the abdominal organs and lines the abdominal cavity.

Peritonitis

Infection of the peritoneal cavity that must be treated immediately by a doctor.

Phosphate Binders

Medications that bind with dietary phosphorus so that it may be eliminated from the body; helps keep calcium and phosphorus in balance for dialysis patients.

Phosphorus

An element necessary for normal body functions, especially bone formation.

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Hereditary disease involving growth of cysts on kidney tissue.

Potassium

An element needed by the body for normal muscle and nerve function and cell maintenance.

Proteins

Group of nitrogen containing compounds found in the body that are essential to life.

Pruritus

Itching.

Pulse

Throbbing sensation felt in the arteries in time with the heartbeat.

Red Blood Cell

Type of blood cell containing hemoglobin which carries oxygen to the tissues.

Renal

Referring to the kidneys.

Semipermeable Membrane

Material that allows fluids and small particles to flow through but not larger particles.

Sodium

Element found in the body that helps regulate the body’s fluid content.

Sterile

Totally free from any living microorganisms.

Thrill

Pulsation (vibration or buzzing) felt over the graft or fistula.

Tissue Typing

Matching the blood cells of potential transplant recipients with donors.

Toxin

Waste product in the blood or any substance that is poisonous.

Ultrafiltration

Process used to remove excess fluid from the blood during dialysis.

Urea

Nitrogenous waste product formed during the breakdown of protein in the body.

Uremia

Buildup of waste products in the blood due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete them.

URR (Urea Reduction Ratio)

Percentage based on how much blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was removed during a dialysis treatment. Indicates how effectively urea and other waste products have been removed.

Vascular

Pertaining to blood vessels.

Vein

Blood vessel that carries blood from other parts of the body back to the heart.

Venous

Referring to veins and the flow of blood to the heart.

Venous Line

Tube that carries blood from the dialyzer back to the body.

Waste Products

Substances formed from the breakdown of protein in foods and from normal muscle activity.

White Blood Cell

Type of blood cell that fights infection in the body.
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